* 2007 script.vtheatre.net/215 *
documents directory topics.txt : script (main) : dramlit : analysis : themes : blog : plays * dramaturgue + Dramatic Literature: [ 0 ] [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ]
* see t-blog : anatolant.spaces.live.com
* History of the theatre : history.vtheatre.net [mini-tour] OG Brockett, FJ Hildy - 1995 - Boston: Allyn and Bacon

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Resources for Theatre/Drama Western Libraries * Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA

I do not want to do what is done already in your textbook (Bedford) and many websites; this page is only a summary, point of references...




There are several textbooks for my classes, this list is for general reference.

Presentationalism vs. Representationalism

Drama is a mix of both. The former would be all performance with no hint of a fictional life, while the latter would lack any spectacle or interest.

Presentationalism: Frank acknowledgement of stage and audience. Actors may speak to us and stage may be bare, so audience must engage their imagination to create a virtual existence for the characters.

Representationalism: emphasizes life through illusion (realism and naturalism). Shows people living their life, oblivious to being watched. A play can never avoid escape presentation, though (fights must be staged, for example).

[ list ]

Realism - Naturalism - Symbolism





... Absurdism

From Plato to Freud: and After
[ Source: Tarnas, R (1991). The Passion of the Western Mind (New York: Ballantine Books) C.# = chapters, C# = century ]
The Oxford Illustrated History of Theatre 0192854429, paper, 592 pages

A history of the theatre -- GWG Wickham - 1985 - Oxford: Phaidon

Oxford Companion to the Theatre. Ed. by Phyllis Hartnoll. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

National Theatres (segment, where and how?)

Thea105 Penn State

Non-Western Theatre * [ ]

Leiter, Samuel L. Kabuki Encyclopedia: An English-Language Adaptation of Kabuki Jiten. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979.
Kabuki terms are arranged in alphabetical order. Included is a subject thesaurus, and index, and black-and-white photos. *

McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of World Drama. Edited by Stanley Hochman. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984.

Kennedy, Dennis, ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre & Performance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Rubin, Don. The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theater. Volume 1: Europe; Volume 2: Americas; Volume 3: Africa. New York, NY: Routledge, 1994- .

On Stage: a History of Theatre by Vera Mowry Roberts; Harper & Row, 1962 [questia] - 1: The Ever-Present Beginnings - 2: Drama in Ancient Egypt - 3: The Golden Age of Greece - 4: Imitations and Innovations of the Romans - 5: Theatre in the Middle Ages - 6: Renaissance Theatre in Italy, France, and Germany - 7: Shakespeare and the Elizabethans - 8: Spanish Theatre in the Renaissance - 9: The Golden Days in France - 10: The Restoration in England - 11: Developments in England and America - 12: Cross-Currents in Continental Theatre - 13: Oriental Theatre - 14: European Romanticism - 15: Commercial Theatre in England and America - 16: Theatre's Great Revolution - 17: Theatre Today

A concise history of the theatre. P Hartnoll - 1980 - London: Thames and Hudson

Dictionary Pages:







film analysis

2007 - thr215 Dramatic Literature : dramlit.vtheatre.net/215

THR215 DramLit
"Performing Arts Timeline." Infoplease 20002007 Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. 24 Sep. 2007 ***


... 2008 and After

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History Through Drama History : Intellectual Cornerstones
theatrehistory.com + Theatre History + ...

To make a timeline based on major plays? Oedipus, Hamlet, Godot... (too subjective?)


The Poetics
Greaco-Roman world View

C6 BC - C3 AD (Sophocles)
"a sustained, highly diversified tendency to interpret the world in terms of archetypical principles ...The Greek universe was ordered by a plurality of timeless essences which underlay concrete reality, giving it form and meaning" (3-4)

C6 - 5 B.C.
Mythic Vision
Explanation by reference to myth and gods: "In the various divinities and their powers lay a sense of the universe as an ordered whole, a cosmos rather than a chaos" (17)

C.5 - 4 BC
The proto-Idealist: The 'Idea' or 'Forms': "an underlying rational unity and order existed within the flux and variety of the world" (19): timeless and unchanging reality as 'forms' existing independent of, but perceived by, the mind; perception of truth somewhat mystical; material world a poor imitation

C.4 BC
The proto-Natural Scientist & empiricist; "True reality ... was the perceptible world of concrete objects, not an imperceptible world of eternal Ideas" (56). Theory of 'indwelling form': "A substance ... is not simply a unit of matter, but is an intelligible structure or form ( eidos ) embodied in matter" (57)

C2 BC - C3 AD
Carried on Greek thought and myth, but more pragmatic and of this world.

Christian world View
C.4 - C15 Truth is God
C.4 - C15

Reality / Truth is unchanging and timeless God. The next life is more important than this one. Christian theology heavily influenced by Idealist

Renaissance World View Mid C15 - mid C17
Humanist value on life and art
Mid C15 - C16
'Re-discovery' of Classical past; new 'humanist' emphasis on human life and achievements

Reformation (and new Church of England) breaks dominance of the Catholic Church;
Reformation has enormous consequences for centuries: new focus on human life, individualism, domestic and secular work as devotion to God ('Protestant work ethic')

Scientific Revolution
C16-C17 We are no longer at the centre of the universe or of God's creation.

1 st half C16
'Copernican Revolution': heliocentric universe

2 nd half C16
Refined and elaborated Copernicus' theory

End C16
Invention of microscope, perhaps by Dutchman Zacharias Janssen

Beginning C17
Invention of the telescope, perhaps by Dutchman Hans Lippershey

1 st half C17
Further elaboration of heliocentric universe

1 st half C17
Rationalist philosophical foundation of new science; epochal defining statement of modern self: cogito ergo sum thinking, self-aware subject cannot be doubted: sharp distinction between subject (internal, mind, consciousness) and object (external material world, the body) which is therefore measurable and explicable: certain knowledge possible through disciplined rationality alone. "Thus human reason establishes first its own existence, out of experiential necessity, then God's existence, out of logical necessity, and thence the God-guaranteed reality of the objective world and its rational order" (279). "In Descarte's vision, science, progress, reason, epistemological certainty, and human identity were all inextricably connected with each other and with the conception of an objective, mechanistic universe; and upon this synthesis was founded the paradigmatic character of the modern mind" (280).

2 nd half C17
Consolidates heliocentric universe with 'law of Gravity'

Enlightenment C18 The age of rationality, science & Empiricism - one of two streams emanating from the Renaissance

Empiricism : In opposition to the rationalism of Descartes; "There is nothing in the intellect that was not previously in the senses" (333); we should observe the world neutrally and dispassionately and record data without distortion. Reason then works out the connections between things

Empiricism more extreme: Scepticism of transcendence and metaphysics. Since our knowledge of things is based in empiricism, we can only know our experience and mental impressions of things, not the things in themselves.

"recognised that man could only know the phenomenal, and that any metaphysical conclusions concerning the nature of the universe that went beyond his experience were unfounded" (341). The correspondence between the world and human understanding was explained by the fact that "the 'world' science explicated was a world already ordered by the mind's own cognitive apparatus ... In the act of human cognition, the mind does not conform to things; rather things conform to the mind" (343) ... "Science's answers derive from the same source as its questions" (346); called Kant's ' Copernican Revolution' : "as Copernicus had explained the perceived movement of the heavens by the actual movement of the observer, so Kant explained the perceived order of the world by the actual order of the observer" (346-47). "Thus the true philosopher's task was to investigate the formal structure of the mind, for only there would it find the true origin and foundation for certain knowledge of the world" (347). "Man was again at the centre of his universe, but this was now only his universe, not the universe" (349).

Late C18 - mid C19
The age of subjectivity, emotion, the unique, free & creative individual - the other stream emanating from the Renaissance

"the Romantic vision perceived the world as a unitary organism rather than an atomistic machine, exalted the ineffability of inspiration rather than the enlightenment of reason, and affirmed the inexhaustible drama of human life rather than the calm predictability of static abstractions ... the Romantic valued man rather for his imaginative and spiritual aspirations, his emotional depths, his artistic creativity and powers of individual self-expression and self-creation" (367). Intense self-awareness, focus on complex nature of human self; darkness as well as light in human soul; the sublime.

In regard to reality and truth: " the Romantic gloried in the unbounded multiplicity of realities pressing in on his subjective awareness , and in the complex uniqueness of each object, event, and experience presented to his soul. Truth discovered in divergent perspectives was valued above the monolithic and univocal ideal of empirical science. For the Romantic, reality was symbolically resonant through and through, and was therefore fundamentally multivalent, a constantly changing complex of many-levelled meanings, even of opposites" (368). Imagination valued as "true ground of being, the medium of all realities" (369).

C19 Divided world View
Influences of the Enlightenment and Romanticism

Marx & Engels
The Communist Manifesto; 1867 Marx's Das Kapital

mid C19
Positivism and sociology

2 nd 1/2 C19
Evolutionary theory

Late C19
There are no facts, only interpretations; "There exists a plurality of perspectives through which the world can be interpreted, and there is no authoritative independent criterion according to which one system can be determined to be more valid than others" (370). Since there is no one truth, the world can be transformed by a heroic individual act of will. "Truth was not something one proved or disproved; it was something one created " (371)

End C19 - beginning C20

High Modernism
Exploration of the irrational unconscious; Psychoanalysis


Totalitarian society and socialist states


Cold War and New Technologies

Postmodern :


Y2K : The End of Century and Millennium

... New Age

... to use the timeline in my other classes!

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